John Baptist Mazzucconi Martyr of New Guinea
article on Bl. John Baptist Mazzucconi is from my Father
Feeney and His Enemies which hopefully will be published
soon, perhaps as an E-book. It is available here for a free
few weeks ago I was browsing in the biography section of our
monastery library, when a book with an attractive blue cover
caught my eye. It was a color photograph of a beach in the
Pacific islands with cocoanut trees and grass shacks. It must
have looked idyllic to anyone who had never been there. I
suspected correctly that it was New Guinea, where I had spent
some time with the Fifth Air Force during World War II. The
book was Mazzucconi of Woodlark, Priest and Martyr by
Fr. Nicholas Maestrini, PIME. I had never heard of Blessed
John Mazzucconi and Woodlark didn't ring a bell, but looking
at the photographs, I noticed one with the caption, "Guazup
Bay, the scene of Blessed John's martyrdom." Suddenly
a bell rang: "Goosap" (evidently the best
the G.I.s could do with Guazup), and a song popped into my
head which I hadn't heard for over fifty years, from 1943
and 1944, to be exact. Sung to the tune of "The
Blues in the Night" it went something like:
From Nadzab to Wewak, from Wewak to Goosap,
Wherever the Ramu flows...
A worrisome thing that leads me to sing
The New Guinea blues.
is a typical G.I. song with the usual doggrel lyrics, but
which a little bit catches the spirit of a place. But I had
better back up a little...
New Guinea is a huge island over a thousand miles across shaped
something like a bird. The Western end is called the Vogelkopf,
"bird's head" in Dutch, and the Eastern end which
looks like a swallow's tail, is Milne Bay. In early 1943 Milne
Bay was the first place the Japs suffered a defeat, being
turned back in their drive to Australia by a handful of Americans
and Australians. Just a few miles north of the swallow tail
is Woodlark Island, where on Guazup Bay the Americans built
an airstrip, known to the G.I.s as "Goosap," and
from where for the first time fighter planes could reach Rabaul
on the northern tip of New Britain, the main Jap air base
in the region. My outfit moved into Milne Bay in late 1943
when it was just being used as a staging area. From there
we moved a few hundred miles eastward down the coast
to Finschafen, the scene of another American and Australian
victory some months earlier. Part of our outfit moved across
the narrow Viataz Straight to an airfield on the southern
tip of New Britain, Cape Glouscester, which had been captured
by the Marines a few weeks previously, and from this and other
fields, the big Jap base at Rabaul was effectively neutralized.
But in the narrow straight between Finschafen and Cape Glouscester,
there is a tiny island called Rook, where Blessed John and
his companions had labored unsuccessfully for two years. Of
course I had no idea that in those days we were following
in the footsteps of a saint and martyr, at least for our first
two stops, and I devoured the book in a few hours.
Blessed John was a member of the newly founded "Pontifical
Institute of Foreign Missions," popularly known as "P.I.M.E.,"
from the initials of the title of the society in Latin, 1
an association of diocesan priests dedicated to the foreign
missions, similar to the Paris Foreign Mission Society. It
was founded in 1850 at the suggestion of Pope Pius IX by Bishop
Angelo Ramazotti, who later became Bishop of Pavia and Patriarch
of Venice. Seven PIME missionaries, five priests and two brothers,
arrived at Woodlark in 1852. Two priests and one brother remained
at Woodlark, and the other three priests, including John,
went on to Rook.
Unfortunately, John contracted malaria his very first night
on Rook, and the other missionaries soon succumbed. Soon the
bodies of the men became covered with sores and they were
reduced to walking skeletons. During World War II my outfit
suffered heavier casualties from the jungle, than we did from
the Japs, from malaria, dengue, and what we called "jungle
rot," a fungus which afflicted everyone. By the
time we finally got to the Philippines, my hands were covered
with open sores, and they didn't completely heal until I had
been back home for about six months.
"'Mazzucconi on mate, mate,' means 'Mazzucconi,
you are very, very sick.' This is what the children were shouting
to John through the holes in the walls of the hut. Inside
in the dim light of the hut, John was lying on a mat in a
raging fever, a victim of malaria, with his mouth wide open
breathing heavily, eyes swollen.
"The voices persisted. 'Mazzucconi on mate, mate.'
The children repeated these words while the mind of the poor
missionary strayed far away into a dangerous and frightening
world. All of a sudden he turned his head to the wall from
which the voices came and with a sweet smile, in a faint voice,
he murmured, "No, no. On the contrary, I am well and
I am happy."
"Brother Joseph, sitting nearby, lovingly attended the
sick patient who kept on repeating, 'I am well and happy.'"
On March 17, 1855, Brother Joseph Corti died of fever on Rook.
He was the first PIME missionary to die at his mission post
in a mission land. They buried him beside their elder missionary
brothers who preceded them in this inhospitable land, Bishop
Collomb and Father Villiers of the Marists, who had also succumbed
"From the religious point of view, the Woodlark area
already had a painful history. The first Bishop of Melanesia
was the Marist Bishop Epalle who on December 1, 1845, landed
on San Cristobal in the Solomons with seven Marist priests
and six lay brothers. From there on December 16th, he proceeded
to Isabel Island where he planned to establish his headquarters.
However, as soon as he landed he was surrounded by a group
of natives who, shouting and screaming wildly, attacked him
with an axe, wounding him on the head...After three days of
intense suffering, Bishop Epalle died, offering his young
life for the conversion of the island. He was buried there
and the surviving missionaries returned to San Cristobal.
"Early in 1847 young Father Crey died of malaria; later
on April 20th, Fathers Paget and Jacquet and Brother Hyacinth
were attacked by the Toro tribe on the Eastern coast of San
Cristobal and were killed and eaten at a grand banquet.
"The new Bishop Collomb returned in August from Australia
and New Zealand where he had been consecrated Bishop. He decided
to move the mission headquarters from San Cristobal to Woodlark
where he arrived on September 14, 1847, hoping the Woodlark
natives might be more responsive to the faith. Much to his
disappointment, he soon found out that the natives were as
antagonistic as those on San Cristobal. Undaunted by this
setback, he decided to expand his missionary work, and as
soon as he received more missionaries from France, he went
to open a new mission on Rook Island about 600 miles to the
north of Woodlark between the Island of New Britain
and New Guinea.
"Only two months later his efforts came to an abrupt
end when he died from malaria and intestinal complications.
Another young priest [Father Villiers] also died four months
later. The surviving priests then decided to abandon Rook
and return to Woodlark." 3
But what especially endeared Blessed John to me was not just
the fact that I was a little familiar with the scene of his
labors, and that I could sympathize with his extreme physical
sufferings, but because he believed that the natives, "his
children," as he called them, would go to hell unless
they became Catholics before they died. Father Maestrini writes
"What motivated a young man in those days to dedicate
his life to the foreign missions in spite of incredible hardships
and probable death at the hands of persecutors? Like his contemporaries
John was deeply convinced that all non-Christians would go
to hell for all eternity. The thought that millions of souls
would suffer eternal fire (as he believed) was enough to prompt
him to make the hardest sacrifices. John related that when,
out of obedience to his spiritual director, he discontinued
thinking about the missions and concentrated his thoughts
on his future priesthood, the question persistently recurring
in his mind was: 'But which type of priest should I be? A
priest at home or in the foreign missions.' When he was thinking
about saving souls, it seemed to him that thousands of voices
were begging him in despair: 'Cross the oceans, come and save
Blessed John was born on March 1, 1826 in Lecco, a suburb
of Milan, the ninth of twelve children of Giacomo Mazzucconi
and Anna Maria Scuri, and baptized the following day. Three
of John's brothers and sisters died in early childhood, seven
entered religious life, and only two remained in the world,
where they led exemplary Catholic lives. But even with such
wonderful parents, John's father wondered why he should go
so far away to work among "savages"; couldn't he
do good even here at home.
"This was the voice of nature speaking and it was not
difficult for John to win over his father. With enthusiasm
and passion he described to him the miserable state of the
poor infidels who were condemned to go to Hell because nobody
cared to preached Christ to them. Giacomo, who was profoundly
Christian, was so moved by his son's eloquence and convincing
arguments that, bowing his head to the will of God, he said:
'If it is really true as you say, son, then go and go quickly.
Don't waste any time.'" 5
Father Maestrini attempts to rebut the doctrinal basis of
Blessed John's zeal for the missions:
"One may remark that, after all, John's motive to devote
his life to work in the foreign missions was based on the
common belief prevailing in those days that all the 'infidels'
were condemned to Hell and that only those persons who would
come to know Christ and would become members of the Catholic
Church would have a chance to attain eternal salvation. This
doctrine, of course, was never defined by the Church in those
terms but it certainly was the current belief in Mazzucconi's
time. Today we know differently because Vatican Council II
has affirmed that non-Christians also can be saved without
becoming Christians if they follow the dictates of their conscience."
Father Maestrini is referring to Lumen Gentium 2,16,
but it does not say what he claims it says:
"...Those who, through no fault of their own, do not
know the Gospel or his Church, but who nevertheless
seek God with a sincere heart, and, moved by grace, try
in their actions to do his will as they know it through the
dictates of their conscience - those too may attain eternal
salvation. 19" 7
The emphasis is mine. Father Maestrini stops here, but the
"Nor shall divine providence deny the assistance necessary
for salvation to those who, without any fault of theirs, have
not yet arrived at an explicit knowledge of God, and who,
not without grace, strive to lead a good life. Whatever good
or truth is found amongst them is considered by the Church
to be a preparation for the Gospel and given by him
who enlightens all men that they may at length have life.
But very often, deceived by the Evil One, men have become
vain in their reasonings, have exchanged the truth of God
for a lie and served the world rather than the Creator
(cf. Romans 1:21 and 25). Hence to procure the glory of God
and the salvation of these, the Church mindful of the Lord's
command, "preach the Gospel to every creature (Mk. 16:16)
takes zealous care to foster the missions."
Again the emphasis is mine. So a person of good will who follows
the dictates of his conscience can indeed be saved, but
not where he is. The Church considers such a state a "preparation
for the Gospel," and it is to such as these that
the Church zealously takes care to extend her missionary efforts.
The key phrase in this interpretation, but not where he
is, I have taken from the famous Catholic apologist of
the last century, Orestes Brownson, commenting on a similar
false interpretation of an encyclical of Pius IX:
"That those in societies alien to the Church, invincibly
ignorant of the Church, if they correspond to the graces they
receive, and persevere will be saved, we do not doubt, but
not where they are, or without being brought to the Church.
They are sheep in the prescience of God Catholics, but sheep
not yet gathered into the fold. 'Other sheep I have,"
says our blessed Lord, "that are not of this fold;
THEM ALSO I MUST BRING; AND THEY SHALL HEAR MY VOICE; and
there shall be made one fold and one shepherd.' This is conclusive;
and that these must be brought, and enter the fold which is
the Church, St. Augustine expressly teaches, tract. 45
in Joann., n.15." 9
In the passage from Lumen Gentium 2, 16 which I have
cited above, there is an official footnote referring to the
"Letter of the Holy Office to the Archbishop of Boston."
This "Letter" said in part:
"12. That one may obtain eternal salvation, it is not
always required that he be incorporated into the Church actually
as a member, but it is necessary that at least he be united
to her by desire and longing.
"13. However, this desire need not always be explicit,
as it is in catechumens; but when a person is involved in
invincible ignorance, God accepts also an implicit desire,
so called, because it is included in that good disposition
of soul whereby a person wishes his will to be conformed to
the will of God." 10
Father Feeney was so upset by these two passages, that he
complained to both the Holy Office and the Holy Father that
they were heretical if understood in their simple and obvious
sense. In my They Fought the Good Fight I wrote that
Lumen Gentium 2, 16 by appending a footnote referring
to the "Letter," was giving us an official and orthodox
interpretation of these ambiguous passages. When the Sisters
of St. Anne were attempting to get their status in the Church
"regularized," they were asked through Bishop Harrington
by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to "understand"
the "Letter." They were not asked to submit to it,
but merely to understand it. My They Fought the Good Fight
was still in manuscript at the time, but it had been read
approvingly by both the Sisters and Bishop Harrington (and
by Bishop Flanagan and Monsignor Deery). I suggested that
the "Letter" be understood in the context of
Lumen Gentium 2, 16. This proposal was acceptable to
both the Sisters and to the Bishop, and on his next ad liminal
visit to Rome, Bishop Harrington offered this understanding
to the Congregation, and it was accepted. He wrote jubilantly
to the Sisters:
"My recent visit to the Congregation for the Doctrine
of the Faith has given cause for great hope regarding the
formal regularization of each member of your community
and consequently your whole community in the Roman Catholic
"Given your acceptance of the Church's integral doctrine
including an understanding of the Holy Office's Letter of
8 August 1949 in the context of Vatican II's authentic teaching
in Lumen Gentium, I am most desirous that you and other
members of your community make a profession of faith which
will allow me to formally regularize your status in the Roman
"With warm good wishes and expressions of gratitude to
God and Our Blessed Mother, I remain
Devotedly yours in Christ." 11
Father Maestrini's claim that Vatican Council II made a complete
break with the teaching of the Church on salvation, was rejected
in 1988 by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation
for the Doctrine of the Faith:
"It is a necessary task to defend the Second Vatican
Council against Msgr. Lefebvre, as valid, and as binding upon
the Church. Certainly there is a mentality of narrow views
that isolates Vatican II and which has provoked this
opposition. There are many accounts of it which give the impression
that, from Vatican II onward, everything has been changed,
and that what preceded has no value or, at best, value only
in the light of Vatican II.
"The second Vatican Council has not been treated as a
part of the entire living Tradition of the Church, but as
an end of Tradition, a new start from zero. The truth
is that this particular Council defined no dogma at all, and
deliberately chose to remain on a modest level, as a merely
pastoral council; and yet many treat it as though it had made
itself into a sort of super-dogma which takes away the importance
of all the rest...
"All this leads a great number of people to ask themselves
if the Church of today is really the same as that of
yesterday, or if they have changed it without telling people.
The only way that Vatican II can be made plausible is to present
it as it is: one part of the unbroken and unique Tradition
of the Church and her faith." 12
This is what as known as the "analogy of faith,"
and it should be applied not only to Vatican II, but to any
magisterial document which might contain weak or ambiguous
statements as in encyclicals, the new Catechism, etc.
Here is the Catechism's definition of the analogy of
"114 3. Be attentive to the analogy of faith.
(Rom. 12:6) By >analogy of faith= we mean the coherence
of the truths of the faith among themselves and within the
whole plan of Revelation." 13
In a recent allocution Pope John Paul II reaffirmed
the three de fide definitions which formed the backbone
of Father Feeney's doctrinal case, that Father Maestrini thinks
were abrogated by Vatican Council II:
"4. Since Christ brings about salvation through
his Mystical Body, which is the Church, the way of salvation
is connected essentially with the Church. The axiom extra
Ecclesiam nulla salus - 'outside the Church there is no salvation'
- stated by St. Cyprian (Epist. 73, 21; PL 1123
AB), belongs to the Christian tradition and was included in
the Fourth Lateran Council (DS 802), in the Bull Unam Sanctam
of Boniface VIII (DS 870) and in the Council of
Florence (Decretum pro Jacobitis, DS 1351)." 14
Father Maestrini claims that Blessed John would have been
just as zealous for the missions, even had he lived in today's
Post-Vatican II world, where the Church is no longer considered
necessary for salvation:
"...One may argue that, admirable as it was, Blessed
Mazzucconi's zeal for the missions was ill-formed and misguided,
that it was based on a false assumption and that the powerful
incentive which motivated him so strongly is now simply non-existent
for us. Consequently the work of evangelizing the non-Christian
cannot have the same appeal for us nor the same urgency that
it had for Blessed John and the other thousands of missionaries
of pre-Vatican days.
"This reasoning is totally wrong. Love and interest in
the foreign missions (namely, evangelization of non-Christians)
is as valid today as it was in the last century and perhaps
even more. In order to prove this point adequately I should
indulge in a lengthy theological exposition of the 'universal
salvific will of God,' but this would be out of place in this
short biography. Suffice to say that Blessed Mazzucconi's
love for the missions was based entirely on, and motivated
by, his love for God and his belief in the missionary nature
of the Church. These are the two cornerstones of the whole
Christian doctrine which do not change with the passing of
time or the whims and caprices of passing generations."
But the plain facts in today's Church deny such a claim. Pope
John Paul II said in his recent encyclical on the missions,
Redemptoris missio, that the missionary vocation, including
that to PIME, "appears to be waning," and again,
missionary vocations "are in danger of disappearing."
Let me give the entire quotes:
"...Nevertheless, in this 'new springtime' of Christianity
there is an undeniable negative tendency, and the present
Document [Redemptoris missio] is meant to help
overcome it. Missionary activity specifically directed 'to
the nations' (ad gentes) appears to be waning, and
this tendency is certainly not in line with the directives
of the Council and of subsequent statements of the Magisterium.
Difficulties both internal and external have weakened the
Church's missionary thrust towards non-Christians, a
fact which must arouse concern among all who believe in Christ.
For in the Church's history, missionary drive has always been
the sign of vitality, just as its lessening is a sign of crisis
of faith" 16...
"I wish to call to mind and to recommend this concern
for missionary vocations. Conscious of the overall responsibility
of Christians to contribute to missionary activity and to
the development of poorer peoples, we must ask ourselves how
it is that in some countries, while missionary contributions
are on the increase, missionary vocations, which are the real
measure of self-giving to one's brothers and sisters, are
in danger of disappearing. Vocations to the priesthood and
the consecrated life are the sure sign of the vitality of
a Church." 17
Pope John Paul II, and Paul VI before him, especially deplore
a misunderstanding of the Council, such as we have just seen
Father Maestrini set forth, which has contributed to the present
"...But one of the most serious reasons for the lack
of interest in the missionary task is a widespread indifferentism,
which, sad to say, is found also among Christians. It is based
on incorrect theological perspectives and is characterized
by a religious relativism which leads to the belief that
'one religion is as good as another.' We can add using the
words of Pope Paul VI, that there are also certain 'excuses
which impede evangelization. The most insidious of these excuses
are certainly the ones which people claim to find support
for in such and such a teaching of the Council.'" 58
"I earnestly ask theologians and professional journalists
to intensify the service they render to the Church's mission,
in order to discover the deep meaning of their work, along
the sure path of 'thinking with the Church' (sentire cum
Father Maestrini, who is not "thinking with the Church,"
has yet another complaint about Blessed John's view of the
"According to the belief of those days, John liked to
consider the Church as a great kingdom at war. He saw the
necessity for some of the officers to remain behind the front
lines to watch the flock, to keep peace and order and to prepare
and train new soldiers, but he could not understand the incredible
indifference of so many Christians toward the front line fighters.
In his mind the only true heroes in the world were those who
brought the Gospel to the remotest areas of the world in spite
of savage people and all kinds of difficulties and hardships.
This war was fought on the side of Jesus, the great Captain
and King. John considered the divine command, 'Go and teach
all nations and preach the Gospel to all creatures' (Mark
16:16), as a personal directive given to him by Christ Himself.
In these days after Vatican II, no longer is the Church considered
as a fighting army in the battle of good against evil, but
rather as a sign of salvation for all men. The difference
between these two concepts is mainly a matter of emphasis.
The fact remains that the message of Christ, 'salvation for
all,' must be communicated to all, and men must 'fight the
good fight of faith' (I Tim. 655:12) to achieve salvation."
What upset John most about "his children" in New
Guinea, was their practice of infanticide, a practice which
would probably endear them to today's abortionists, and the
campaigners for "Zero Population Growth":
"In order to persuade the savages to give up the monstrous
practice of killing babies, the missionaries offered generous
gifts to those who would entrust the children to them rather
than to kill them. Needless to say, the natives, with their
inborn spirit of cheating, exploited the missionaries to the
best of their ability. In spite of promises, assurances, oaths,
etc., after they received the gifts they wanted they never
turned over a single child with the exception of a newborn
baby girl who was finally delivered to them for a very high
price. The Superior, Father Reina, baptized her, but she died
a few days later. That was the first, and unfortunately, the
only baptism performed on that inhospitable land." 20
Father John became so sick that when a ship by chance arrived
at Rook, the Superior, Father Reina, ordered him back to Sydney,
Australia to recuperate. While John was gone, Father Salerio,
the Superior on Woodlark arrived with letters from the Congregation
for the Propagation of the Faith. The Roman officials urged
them to consider other fields where the people might be less
hostile to the faith. Reluctantly the missionaries left Rook,
and the first group of PIME missionaries were reunited
after three long years of separation at Woodlark. The
missionaries decided to rejoin John in Sydney and await further
orders from Rome and Milan. Since several deaths among the
natives, especially in the chief's families, had just taken
place, which the natives attributed to the missionaries, the
various chiefs resolved independently of one another to kill
the missionaries. It was just a question of who got to them
first. But they left unexpectedly aboard a chance ship narrowly
escaping a general massacre. Meanwhile John having partially
recovered his health, and having purchased an enormous load
of supplies, impatiently set sail for Woodlark on a ship called
the Gazelle. The ship from Woodlark and the ship from
Sydney must have passed each other at night on the Coral Sea.
"...a stream of canoes from nearby villages around the
bay moved toward the 'Gazelle' [which had run aground
on a coral reef at the entrance of Guazap Bay]...Their leader
was a man by the name of Avicoar, well known to the missionaries
for his antagonistic attitude. In order not to arouse any
suspicion in the crew, the savages decided to leave their
arrows and shields at home and took along only the hatchets
which they could hide among the leaves in their grass skirts.
Three crewmen from the 'Gazelle,' working from a sloop were
trying in vain to free the ship from the coral. The natives
reaching the schooner pretended to sympathize with the white
men and promised them help. None of the savages touched or
threatened the three crewmen. Even Avicoar who, in spite of
the protests of the captain, succeeded in climbing on the
deck, gave no thought to the crew. The murderers had something
else in their hearts. The hatred of the missionaries and their
religion which had accumulated for so long in their minds
demanded blood. First it was necessary to destroy that man
whose very life personified the principles and righteousness
which for three years had been a condemnation of their wayward
"When Avicoar reached the bridge he did not even look
at the captain. In spite of the fact that he knew that the
crew had guns (those terrible weapons which frightened the
natives) he went directly toward Father Mazzucconi who was
easily distinguishable in his black cassock. He was the victim
to be destroyed. Avicoar, feigning friendship, smiled and
greeted the missionary, shaking his hand. Murderer and victim
looked into each other's eyes. Then Avicoar, thrusting his
hand into his grass skirt, extracted the hatchet from his
left side with frightening speed. The shiny metal glittered
in the sun for a second and then with all the strength the
sturdy native had, he hit Father John on the head. Under the
impact of the blade, the priest stumbled for a moment looking
for support, then collapsed on the deck with a split skull.
His soul had already flown to that Heaven for which he had
longed since childhood." 21
In 1855 the PIME missionaries and before them the Marists,
had retreated from the New Guinea battlefield in apparent
defeat, but when John Mazzucconi fell dead on the deck of
the Gazelle, paradoxically, the real battle for New
Guinea, the battle for souls, was won. Even when I was there
in 1943 and 1944 I could see that many of the natives were
Catholics, because they were wearing Mary medals. But today
there are one million Catholics in Papua, New Guinea (which
became an independent country in 1975), one third of the total
When the PIME missionaries arrived in Sydney, Australia, they
were cordially welcomed by the Marist Fathers, who assigned
them Woodlark and Rook Islands as their territory. They sent
veteran missionaries with them to train them, who remained
with them for a year. In the Marist house in Sydney, John
made good friends with the young "King of the Fiji Islands,"
who had been brought there by the Marists to be educated.
In one of his letters John writes:
"Yesterday, August 7th, this odd king came to my room
all by himself to pay me a visit. I was deeply touched and,
as I asked him to sit down, one of the holy pictures which
I keep in my prayer book fell to the ground. He picked it
up and looked at it with open admiration. I explained that
it was a picture of Pope St. Gregory the Great in his pontifical
robes wearing a tiara, a Gospel book in front of him and his
eyes raised to Heaven. The picture was in red and green and
the King was greatly impressed by it. As we started to talk
in English, I said:
"'This is the great motuatapu (chief) whom we
"'Ah, Popi, Popi!' he exclaimed, and then he asked, 'How
many Popes are there?'
"'In Heaven there is only one God and on earth there
is only one Pope,' I answered.
"He started to clap his hands and shouted, 'This is good.
This is good. Bye n' bye Fiji all Pope!', meaning that one
day all his people would become Catholics." 23
On January 13, 1983 Pope John Paul II beatified John Baptist
Mazzucconi. By this act our Holy Father solemnly taught, not
in the ambiguous language which seems to have become the accepted
literary form in this ecumenical age, but simply and clearly,
that there is no salvation outside the Catholic Church.
Pontificum Institutionum Missionum Exterarum.
Nicholas Maestrini, PIME, Mazzucconi of Woodlark, Priest
and Martyr, Catholic Truth Society, Hong Kong and PIME
Missionaries, Detroit, 1983, p.149.
Maestrini, Op. cit., pp.123,124.
Austin Flannery, O.P., General Editor, Vatican Council
II, The Liturgical Press, Collegeville, MN, 1975, p.367;
n.19 See Epist. of the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
to the Archbishop of Boston, Denz. 3869-72.
Flannery, Op. cit., pp.367,368.
"The Great Question," Brownson's Quarterly Review,
October 1847; cf. Thomas Mary Sennott, They Fought the
Good Fight, Catholic Treasures, Monrovia, CA, 1987, p.127.
St. Anne's Archives.
Address given in Santiago, Chile, July 13, 1988. Appeared
in the July 30th - August 5th edition of Il Sabato,
translated into English by Farley Granger for The Wanderer,
September 8, 1988.
Catechism of the Catholic Church, Liguori Publications,
Liguori, MO, 1994, p.33.
General Audience of 31 May 1995, L'Osservatore Romano,
N. 23 - 7 June 1995.
Redemptoris missio, L'Osservatore Romano, N. 4 - 28
January 1991, p.5, col. 1.
L'Osservatore Romano, p. 10, col. 2; n.58 Pope Paul
VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangeli Nuntiandi,
80: loc. cit., 73.
1990 Catholic Almanac, Papua, New Guinea: Caths. 1,160,000
(33.3%); tot. pop., 3,480,000, Our Sunday Visitor, IN, 1990,